Other propagation information:
Requires 3-20 months cold stratification. Acid scarification before stratification may improve germination. Maximum laboratory germination is obtained with acid scarification and a media moistening agent of 300 ppm benzyadenine and 100 mm thiourea (Weber et al 1982).
3-4 months cold stratification or 4 months warm stratification followed by 4 months cold stratification. Fungal growth during stratification must be controlled (McTavish 1986).
Seeds need 3 weeks of cold moist stratification @ 5oC, then germinate with light (Chirco and Turner 1986).
Give seeds a 15 minute presoak in 5-10% hydrogen peroxide then 4 months of cold moist stratification in a plastic bag with perlite (Hudson & Carlson 1998).
Cold moist stratification is needed but germination is erratic. Direct seedings should occur in the fall (Kingery et al 2003).
Needs 3-6 months of cold moist stratification (Kruckeberg 1996).
Propagated by seed, suckers, or layering. Average of 82,000 seeds/lb. Seed requires 90-180 days of cold moist stratification or 4 months of warm moist stratification followed by 4 months of cold moist stratification, or scarify. Seed germinates at low temperatures. Seed should be cleaned immediately after collection (Kaiser 2003).
Requires cold moist stratification for 4-6 months. Root cuttings or divisions may also be used (Rose et al 1998).
Seed may require 2-6 mo of cold moist stratification @ 34-40oF (Link et al 1993).
Excess drying of seeds may induce a deep secondary dormancy. Seeds require 98-180 days of cold moist stratification at 1-6oC. Germination may occur at low temperatures during stratification. May take 2 years to germinate. Half shade during the first year of growth after germination is beneficial (Brinkman & Strong undated in Woody Plant Seed Manual).
Needs 2-6 months of cold moist stratification at 41oF (Young & Young 1986).
Seed stores up to 15 years in an unheated warehouse (Stevens et al 1981).
Etiolated softwood cuttings can be rooted with a combination of intermittent mist and auxin (Nelson 1987).
Brinkman K.A., and T. F. Strong. undated. Amelanchier Medik. serviceberry. In: Bonner, Franklin T., and Rebecca G. Nisley (eds.). Woody Plant Seed Manual. USDA Forest Service. Available online at http://www.nsl.fs.fed.us/wpsm/
Chirco, Ellen, and Terry Turner. 1986. Species Without AOSA Testing Procedures. The Newsletter of the Association of Official Seed Analysts 60(2):2-66.
Davis, Ray J. 1952. Flora of Idaho. Wm. C. Brown, Dubuque, Iowa. 827 pp.
Flessner, Teresa. 2002. Description, Use and Establishment of Pacific Serviceberry. USDA, NRCS Plant Materials Tech. Note 49. Spokane, WA.
Hitchcock, C. Leo, Arthur Cronquist, Marion Ownbey, and J.W. Thompson. 1969. Vascular Plants of the Pacific Northwest. University of Washington Press. Seattle, WA. 5 vol.
Hudson, Shelley, and Michael Carlson. 1998. Propagation of Interior British Columbia Native Plants from Seed. British Columbia Ministry of Forests. Online at http://www.for.gov.bc.ca/hfd/pubs/docs/mr/Mr093/Mr093.pdf
Kaiser, Betsy. 2003. Native Plant Notebook. USDA Forest Service, Umatilla National Forest. Online at http://www.fs.fed.us/r6/uma/native/index.htm Accessed 1/3/06.
Kingery, James, Angela Cotter, and Kendra Moseley. 2003. Idaho Roadside Revegetation Handbook. Prepared for: Idaho Transportation Department. Department of Rangeland Ecology and Management, University of Idaho. Online at http://h237-41.state.id.us/highways/ops/maintenance/Manuals/fullVegetationManual.pdf
Kruckeberg, Arthur R. 1996. Gardening with Native Plants of the Pacific Northwest. University of Washington Press. Seattle, WA.
Kufeld, Roland. 1973. Foods Eaten by the Rocky Mountain Elk. Journal of Range Management 26:106-113.
Link, Ellen (ed.). 1993. Native Plant Propagation Techniques for National Parks Interim Guide. USDA, NRCS, Rose Lake Plant Materials Center. East Lansing, MI.
McTavish, Bruce. 1986. Seed Propagation of Some Native Plants Is Surprisingly Successful. American Nurseryman 164(4):55-56, 60,62-63.
Nelson, S.H. 1987. Effects of Stock Plant Etiolation on the Rooting of Saskatoon Berry. Canadian Journal of Plant Science 67:299-303.
Piper, C.V., and R.K. Beattie. 1914. The Flora of Southeastern Washington and Adjacent Idaho. Lancaster, PA: Press of the New Era Printing Company. 296 pp.
Pocewicz, Amy. 2005. Host Plants of Palouse Butterfly Species. 2 page handout to accompany the April 2005 presentation to the Palouse Prairie Foundation.
Pyle, Robert M. 2002. The Butterflies of Cascadia. The Seattle Audubon Society, Seattle, Washington. 420 pp.
Rose, Robin, Caryn E.C. Chachulski, and Diane L. Haase. 1998. Propagation of Pacific Northwest Native Plants. Oregon State University Press, Corvallis, OR.
Stevens, Richard, Kent R. Jorgensen, and James N. Davis. 1981. Viability of Seed From Thirty-two Shrub and Forb Species Through Fifteen Years of Warehouse Storage. Great Basin Naturalist 41:274-277.
St. John, Harold. 1963. Flora of Southeastern Washington and of Adjacent Idaho. 3rd edition. Outdoor Pictures. Escondido, CA.
Stubbendieck, James, Stephan L. Hatch, and Charles H. Butterfield. 1997. North American Range Plants. 5th edition. University of Nebraska Press, Lincoln, NE. 501 pp.
USDA, NRCS. 2009. The PLANTS Database (http://plants.usda.gov, 13 July 2009). National Plant Data Center, Baton Rouge, LA 70874-4490 USA.
Weber, G.P., L.E. Wiesner, and R.E. Lund. 1982. Improving Germination of Skunkbrush Sumac and Serviceberry Seed. Journal of Seed Technology 7:60-71.
Young, James A. and Cheryl G. Young. 1986. Collecting, Processing and Germinating Seeds of Wildland Plants. Timber Press, Portland, OR.
Zamora, Benjamin, and Thomas Gnojek. 2001. Total Available Carbohydrates in Serviceberry after Late Summer and Fall Burning. pp. 302-305 in: McArthur, E. Durant and Daniel J. Fairbanks (comps.). 2001. Shrubland Ecosystem Genetics and Biodiversity: Proceedings. June 13-15, 2000. Provo, UT. US Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station RMRS-P-21. Ogden, Utah. 365 p.