Plant Species: Haplopappus liatriformis, Palouse goldenweed
Phylum: Magnoliophyta -- flowering plants
Class: Magnoliopsida -- Dicotyledons
Family: Asteraceae (Compositae) -- sunflower
Common Name: Palouse goldenweed, smallhead goldenweed
Species Code: HALI2, PYLI
Origin: Endemic to grasslands of the Palouse region of southeast Washington and adjacent north Idaho.
Rare: ranked G2 (imperiled) globally and S2 (imperiled) in both Washington and Idaho. Considered a "species of concern" federally under the Endangered Species Act.
Form: forb, perennial from a caudex; stems 30-70 cm tall, decumbent at the base, simple or more often branched, villous throughout.
Longevity: moderate lifespan
Habitat Type: prairie
Wetland Indicator Status: not listed
Leaves: entire or coarsely toothed, scabrous margined; basal leaves 7-25 cm long and 10-30 mm wide, tufted, petiolate, oblanceolate to narrowly elliptic; cauline leaves somewhat reduced and sessile upward.
Mature height: 12-28 inches
Flowers: several to numerous; disc 2 cm wide; involucre turbinate to campanulate, 10-16 mm tall, villous, bracts acute, subequal or imbricate; ray flowers 13-21, pistillate or neutral, yellow, 6-10 mm long; disc flowers perfect, 7-10 mm long, yellow.
Flower color: yellow
Bloom: July, August
Bloom starts on: mid July
Bloom ends on: late August
Fruit: achene, fusiform, compressed, 5-6 mm long, brown; pappus of brownish unequal capillary bristles.
Hoorebekia racemosa in Piper & Beattie 1914.
Reproduces sexually by seed.
161,740 seeds/lb (USDA NRCS Pullman PMC 2005).
Perennating organ is a caudex.
Bumblebees, small bees and wasps, orange skippers, and rove beetles visit the flowers but it is not known how effective each is in pollination (Mancuso 1997).
Disc flowers are perfect, ray flowers are pistillate or neutral.
2n=36 (Flora of North America Editorial Committee 1993).
Fruit is an achene.
Seeds are dispersed by wind.
Sun requirement: full
Soil moisture: mesic
Precipitation: 18-22 inches
Sowing time: fall
Transplant time: spring
Seed yield: medium
Seed harvest: August, September
Seed first harvest: second season
Seed cleaning: medium
Planting duration: moderate
Seed insect problem: yes
Seed shatter: high
Seed size: medium
Seed harvest date: August, September
Seed comments: seed ripening is indeterminate and ripe seeds are dispersed by wind.
Key words: rare upland native perennial forb
Alternate Genus: Pyrrocoma
1 protocol in the Native Plant Network
Pullman WA Plant Materials Center
Other propagation information:
Seeds of other Haplopappus species germinate without pretreatment (Young & Young 1986).
Reproduces sexually by seed.
Notes: Haplopappus liatriformis flowers are more attractive than H. carthamoides. Blooms late in the season. Individual plants are rather spindly, but it looks better in groups. Seems to be short-lived. This is a rare species endemic only to the Palouse Prairie. It occurs nowhere else in the world. Do not collect seed or plants. Other names include Palouse goldenweed, Pyrrocoma liatriformis (Skinner et al 2005).
Flora of North America Editorial Committee, eds. 1993+. Flora of North America North of Mexico. 7+ vols. New York and Oxford. Oxford University Press. Online at http://www.fna.org/FNA/
Mancuso, Michael. 1997. Palouse Goldenweed (Haplopappus liatriformis) Monitoring at Craig Mountain, Idaho. Idaho Department of Fish and Game. Online at http://www2.state.id.us/fishgame/info/cdc/cdc_pdf/hapli96.pdf
Piper, C.V., and R.K. Beattie. 1914. The Flora of Southeastern Washington and Adjacent Idaho. Lancaster, PA: Press of the New Era Printing Company. 296 pp.
Skinner, David M., Paul Warnick, Bill French, and Mary Fauci. 2005. More Palouse Forbs for Landscaping. USDA NRCS Pullman Plant Materials Center and Palouse Prairie Foundation.
Online at http://www.wsu.edu/pmc_nrcs/Docs/More_Forbs_for_Landscaping.pdf
USDA NRCS, Pullman Plant Materials Center. 2005. Seed Weights of Some Palouse Native Species. Pullman Plant Materials Center, Pullman, Washington. Online at http://www.wsu.edu/~pmc_nrcs/Docs/Seed_Weights_Palouse_Native_Species.pdf
USDA NRCS. 2009. The PLANTS Database (http://plants.usda.gov, 21 September 2009). National Plant Data Center, Baton Rouge, LA 70874-4490 USA.
Young, James A., and Cheryl G. Young. 1986. Collecting, Processing and Germinating Seeds of Wildland Plants. Timber Press, Portland, OR.